Istio Canary Deployments

This guide shows you how to use Istio and Flagger to automate canary deployments.

Bootstrap

Create a test namespace with Istio sidecar injection enabled:

export REPO=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/weaveworks/flagger/master
kubectl apply -f ${REPO}/artifacts/namespaces/test.yaml

Create a deployment and a horizontal pod autoscaler:

kubectl apply -f ${REPO}/artifacts/canaries/deployment.yaml
kubectl apply -f ${REPO}/artifacts/canaries/hpa.yaml

Deploy the load testing service to generate traffic during the canary analysis:

kubectl -n test apply -f ${REPO}/artifacts/loadtester/deployment.yaml
kubectl -n test apply -f ${REPO}/artifacts/loadtester/service.yaml

Create a canary custom resource (replace example.com with your own domain):

apiVersion: flagger.app/v1alpha3
kind: Canary
metadata:
name: podinfo
namespace: test
spec:
# deployment reference
targetRef:
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
name: podinfo
# the maximum time in seconds for the canary deployment
# to make progress before it is rollback (default 600s)
progressDeadlineSeconds: 60
# HPA reference (optional)
autoscalerRef:
apiVersion: autoscaling/v2beta1
kind: HorizontalPodAutoscaler
name: podinfo
service:
# container port
port: 9898
# Istio gateways (optional)
gateways:
- public-gateway.istio-system.svc.cluster.local
- mesh
# Istio virtual service host names (optional)
hosts:
- app.example.com
canaryAnalysis:
# schedule interval (default 60s)
interval: 1m
# max number of failed metric checks before rollback
threshold: 5
# max traffic percentage routed to canary
# percentage (0-100)
maxWeight: 50
# canary increment step
# percentage (0-100)
stepWeight: 10
metrics:
- name: request-success-rate
# minimum req success rate (non 5xx responses)
# percentage (0-100)
threshold: 99
interval: 1m
- name: request-duration
# maximum req duration P99
# milliseconds
threshold: 500
interval: 30s
# generate traffic during analysis
webhooks:
- name: load-test
url: http://flagger-loadtester.test/
timeout: 5s
metadata:
cmd: "hey -z 1m -q 10 -c 2 http://podinfo.test:9898/"

Save the above resource as podinfo-canary.yaml and then apply it:

kubectl apply -f ./podinfo-canary.yaml

After a couple of seconds Flagger will create the canary objects:

# applied
deployment.apps/podinfo
horizontalpodautoscaler.autoscaling/podinfo
canary.flagger.app/podinfo
# generated
deployment.apps/podinfo-primary
horizontalpodautoscaler.autoscaling/podinfo-primary
service/podinfo
service/podinfo-canary
service/podinfo-primary
virtualservice.networking.istio.io/podinfo

Automated canary promotion

Trigger a canary deployment by updating the container image:

kubectl -n test set image deployment/podinfo \
podinfod=quay.io/stefanprodan/podinfo:1.4.1

Flagger detects that the deployment revision changed and starts a new rollout:

kubectl -n test describe canary/podinfo
Status:
Canary Weight: 0
Failed Checks: 0
Phase: Succeeded
Events:
Type Reason Age From Message
---- ------ ---- ---- -------
Normal Synced 3m flagger New revision detected podinfo.test
Normal Synced 3m flagger Scaling up podinfo.test
Warning Synced 3m flagger Waiting for podinfo.test rollout to finish: 0 of 1 updated replicas are available
Normal Synced 3m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 5
Normal Synced 3m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 10
Normal Synced 3m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 15
Normal Synced 2m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 20
Normal Synced 2m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 25
Normal Synced 1m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 30
Normal Synced 1m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 35
Normal Synced 55s flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 40
Normal Synced 45s flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 45
Normal Synced 35s flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 50
Normal Synced 25s flagger Copying podinfo.test template spec to podinfo-primary.test
Warning Synced 15s flagger Waiting for podinfo-primary.test rollout to finish: 1 of 2 updated replicas are available
Normal Synced 5s flagger Promotion completed! Scaling down podinfo.test

Note that if you apply new changes to the deployment during the canary analysis, Flagger will restart the analysis.

You can monitor all canaries with:

watch kubectl get canaries --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE NAME STATUS WEIGHT LASTTRANSITIONTIME
test podinfo Progressing 15 2019-01-16T14:05:07Z
prod frontend Succeeded 0 2019-01-15T16:15:07Z
prod backend Failed 0 2019-01-14T17:05:07Z

Automated rollback

During the canary analysis you can generate HTTP 500 errors and high latency to test if Flagger pauses the rollout.

Create a tester pod and exec into it:

kubectl -n test run tester \
--image=quay.io/stefanprodan/podinfo:1.2.1 \
-- ./podinfo --port=9898
kubectl -n test exec -it tester-xx-xx sh

Generate HTTP 500 errors:

watch curl http://podinfo-canary:9898/status/500

Generate latency:

watch curl http://podinfo-canary:9898/delay/1

When the number of failed checks reaches the canary analysis threshold, the traffic is routed back to the primary, the canary is scaled to zero and the rollout is marked as failed.

kubectl -n test describe canary/podinfo
Status:
Canary Weight: 0
Failed Checks: 10
Phase: Failed
Events:
Type Reason Age From Message
---- ------ ---- ---- -------
Normal Synced 3m flagger Starting canary deployment for podinfo.test
Normal Synced 3m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 5
Normal Synced 3m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 10
Normal Synced 3m flagger Advance podinfo.test canary weight 15
Normal Synced 3m flagger Halt podinfo.test advancement success rate 69.17% < 99%
Normal Synced 2m flagger Halt podinfo.test advancement success rate 61.39% < 99%
Normal Synced 2m flagger Halt podinfo.test advancement success rate 55.06% < 99%
Normal Synced 2m flagger Halt podinfo.test advancement success rate 47.00% < 99%
Normal Synced 2m flagger (combined from similar events): Halt podinfo.test advancement success rate 38.08% < 99%
Warning Synced 1m flagger Rolling back podinfo.test failed checks threshold reached 10
Warning Synced 1m flagger Canary failed! Scaling down podinfo.test